In 1755, Giyanti treaty was signed and Kasultanan Mataram was split to Yogyakarta and Surakarta. The internal conflict was used by Dutch to split this kingdom, Pangeran Mangkubumi reigned in Yogyakarta and title as Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, and Sinuhun paku Buwono III reigned in Surakarta. Both kingdom evolved with their own way , that they have different and unique daily custom.
Blangkon Jogja has buldge or mondolan, while Surakarta blangkon has no buldge. In the old time, Javanese men has long hair that they curved the hair behind their head with headband. Other people think that the hair curved was like a disgrace that should be hidden, self disgrace or others disgrace. Keeping their own feelings to keep others feeling. Keep smiling though their hearts crying or angry. Those are the general typical of Javanese. While in Solo, as it was closer to colonial government, men cut their hair short that blangkon Solo had no buldge and the end of the blangkon fabric were tied to each other and it was symbolizes two testimonies of faith in Islam.
There are two philosophies of blangkon. The first is about product put on head is an idea, and should be concomitant to Islam values, not let it free but directed to benefit others as well. In short, idea should be rahmatan lil alamin (bless for universe). The second philosophy is blangkon is like macrocosms (the universe) and head is microcosm (human).This means that human should act as khalifah fil ardhi (leader of the earth) and should obey God.
Surjan and Beskap
Daily traditional blouse for Yogyakarta men is surjan. There are two surjan motives, striated and floral surjan. In Surakarta, the daily traditional blouse for men is called beskap, a cloak that was designed by Dutch derives from beschaafd means civilized. The difference between surjan and beskap is very obvious. This can be seen from button, if Surakara buttons lining on the side, while surjan Yogyakarta buttons designed in the middle.
Surakarta keris is called as ladrang while in Jogja called as Branggah. Branggah has slender keris seathe and more simple without intense decoration as senopaten style and Sultan Agung style. Kris is ornamented with Madurese styme motives from Mpu Brojoguno. Surakarta decoration is more refine than Yogyakarta. The kris handle, kris curve and other features are differents between kris from both regions, and each has its own philosophies.
Pleated in jarik (batik fabric) between Surakarta and Yogyakarta are also distinctive. Wiru Yogyakarta shows white line on the end of jarik and sometimes was featured with with folds. Wiru of Surakarta hide the white end.
Batik motives of Solo and Yogyakarta
Jogja batik is white and the motive is black while Surakarta batik is yellow without white motive. In Yogyakarta, there is standard about the batik design in occations. For wedding, batik used are Sidomukti, Sidoluur, SIdoasih, Taruntum or Grompol. While for mitoni (7 months pregnancy) ceremony, batik used are Picis Ceplok Garudo, Parang Mangkoro, or Gringsing Mangkoro.
Yogyakarta Palace and Surakarta Palace origin are same, from Mataram palace patterns. But they evolved differently. There are same patterns only the names are different. For instance in Surakarta a motive is called as Parang sarpa, in Yogyakarta called as golang galing. In Surakarta called Pola Liris, in Yogyakarta called as Rujak Senthe. One obvious difference is in wearing parang and lereng motive. In Surakarta style batik is wrapped from right upper and tilt to lower left, while Yogyakarta style tilt from upper left to lower right.
Other difference between batik Yogyakarta and Surakarta are the design of Parang in Solo from upper left to lower right, while in Yogyakarta from upper right to lower left. For good quality of batik, it can be worn two sides, so no difference. And only the difference is the tradition how to put on, Surakarta or Yogyakarta style.
Basic colors from both styles are distinctive. Yogyakarta uses geometric motives. And according to a research, the classics geometric designs are also exist on old objects and among them are more than 1000 years. Few people estimated that batik was already exist in that period. And other opinion said that those old motives might be known in that period only were not applied in batik arts. Every geometrical design has name and symbolical meaning.
Pager Bagus (Men of Honors) & Pager Ayu (Maid of Honors)
In Surakarta, Pager Bagus usually are young, and glamour while in Yogyakarta, Pager Bagus were mature emphasizing humbleness and knowledge. In Yogyakarta, person is more beautiful when they are knowledgeable.
Bride and Groom Costume and make up.
Surakarta costume has dept philosophies, and inspired by Kasunanan Surakarta king and royal members costumes. Solo Putry Style, or Bride of Surakarta style wears long classic kebaya of black velvet with golden manggar flower ornaments coupled with Sidoasih prada batik. Groom wears beskap langenharjan with blangkon and Sidoasih Prada Batik. The bride make up is completed with black paes on her forehead like royal princess. Hair is dressed in big bight hairdo, decorated with jasmines, comb, and cundhuk menthul. Modification of Surakarta bride costume is long lace kebaya, but later other colors used in Javanese wedding.
Beside Solo Putri, other popular style is Solo Basahan. Solo Basahan costumes consist of dodot or kampuh in dark alas-alasan (animals) motive and plants batik. But later motives and colors of dodot is more vary, though still appropriate for bride and groom. Basahan symbolizes giving and let the future goes as God will. Basahan costume for bride is tanktop as bustier, dodot or kampuh, sampur or shawl, sekar abrit and matching batik, plus garlands of pandan leaf and flowers to avoid disaster or bad luck. Basahan for groom is kampuh or dodot with same motive as the bride’s, kuluk as headgear, stagen (long fabric corset), belt, epek, cinde sekar abrit cinde, keris warangka ladrang, buntal, kolong keris, slippers, and necklace.
Sikepan Ageng costume or Basahan Keprabon is one of basahan style inherited from Javanese kings and royal family tradition. Groom wears dodotan with takwa design, beskap that was worn only by Ingkang Sinuhun (king). Bride wears kampuh or dodot with long sleeves short bolero made of velvet to cover shoulders and chest.
Yogyakarta costume is inspired by Keraton Yogyakarta. There are few styles of Yogyakarta’s costumes, namely Paes Ageng or paes Ageng Kanigaran. Jogja Putri and Kesatrian. The most popular is Jogja Paes Ageng where bride and groom wears dodot or kampuh with various ornaments. Paes hitam with gold roound the outside applied bride’s forehead, hair is dressed in bun, and other woman accessories. Groom wears kuluk as headgear, and pigtail with comb and small cunduk mentuk.
Paes Ageng Jangan Menir is another style of Yogyakarta costume. Groom wears velver decorated with embroidery, belt of shawl and kuluk kanigara as headgear. Paes Ageng Jangan Menir does not use kampuh or dodot.
Jogja Putri costume style is a little bit different than Paes Ageng. Bride wears hair bun decorated with big menthul facing back with gunungan made of metal. Bride wears long embroidery velvet kebaya and prada batik. As modern style influenced the traditional costume, appears KEsatrian Modification that was inspired by Jogja Putri. But the difference is that here bride wears lace kebaya with prada batik, hairbun decorated with cundhuk menthul (kembang goyang) and jasmin garland dangling before chest. Groom wears white beskap with batik prada and blangkon.
Other Jogja style is Jogja Contemporary, a mix of Paes Ageng with white long lace kebaya with Yogyakarta prada batik .
Kraton Knights (Prajurit) of Yogyakarta wears costume that reflects norms and cultural values. For Javanese, outfit is an important cultural elements, as popular in an expression “ajining dhiri saka lathi, ajining raga saka busana, ajining awak saka tumindak”
Here are examples of costume of Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat:
a. Sabukwala Padintenan
Headgear : tlesepan (right hairpin).
Fittings : Handmade batik, kebaya, lonthong, kamus
Accessories : earings, necklace, bracelet
This dress is worn daily for boys and girls
Headgear: curving comb
Fitting: batik, silk surjan, lonthong, kamus
Accessorie: sangsangan tanggalan.
This costumes is for male
c. Pinjung Padintenan
Headgear: ukel tekuk with hairpin
Fittings: Pleated batik, lonthong, kamus, udhet polos.
Accessories: subang, sangsangan, gelang, cincin.
This is a daily costume is for teenage girls in Kraton.
Headgear: ukel tekuk.
Fittings: Batik for nyamping, semekan batik, embong, kamus, gesper kupu and samir.
Accessories : subang, cincin.
This costumes is for bedaya.
e. Semekan Tritik
Ukel: tekuk, ceplok-jenthit.
Fittings: Painted batik, seredan, semekan tritik, kacu, dan bros.
This is worn by single princes and to attend small occasions such as tedak siti ritual, tinggalan ndalem.
f. Semekanan Rasukan Blak-blakan
Ukel: tekuk, tusuk kondhe from gold and diamonds
Fittings: Painted batik, semekan batik, short kebaya.
Accessories: subang, ring.
This is worn by mature princess, unmarried, and to attend small occasion.
g. Penganthi Putri
Ukel: tekuk, comb, ceplok-jebehan.
Fittings: kain cindhe, kain lerek fordodot, blenggen, udhet cindhe, slepe.
Accessories: subang, brooch
This is worn by female penganthi
h. Penganthi kakung
Ukel: tekuk with comb, kuluk kanigara.
Fittings: celana cindhe, sikepan, kampuh
This is worn by male penganthi
Fittings: white batik,black batik, red udhet, wedhung.
This is worn by Dalem Keparak.
Special costumes for Kraton Yogyakarta knights (Prajurit)
1. PRAJURIT WIRABRAJA
Wirabraja derives from wira means brave and braja means sharo, both words were Sanskrit. Philosophically, wirabraja means troop of knights that are brave fighting against enemies and having sharp and sensitive sense.
Banner or flags of wirabraja is Coconut Sugar (Gulo-Klopo), rectangular with white basic color and on every corner is decorated with red centhung resembles tip of red peper (Kuku Bima/ Bima’s Clawn), in the middle there is a red squares and in the center is white octagon. Gula-Klapa derives from Sugar and Coconut, and philosophically, means that the troop is brave to defense righteousness.
2. PRAJURIT DHAENG
Dhaeng derines from Makasar language, a title to Makasar royals. Philosophically, Dhaeng is an elite squad as Makasar knights fought against Dutch in the past. HIstorically, Dhaeng knights was knights transported by Dutch to strengthen Raden Mas Said troop when he was quareling with P Mangkubumi. These two men was actually fighting against Dutch. RM Said divorced from his wife, the daughter of Hamengkubuwono I. When he sent his wife to her parents, he worried that Hamengkubuwono I would be upset. So in case things happened, he sent his ex wife, Kanjeng Ratu Bendoro, acccompanied by elite squad, Dhaeng squad. Arriving at Kraton Yogyakarta, they were welcomed decently. As the friendly welcome, Prajurit Dhaeng did not want to return to Surakarta and serve Hamengku Buwono I, and later named as Bregada Dhaeng by Sri Sultan HB I.
Panji-panji/bendera/klebet/dwaja prajurit Dhaeng adalah Bahningsari, berbentuk empat persegi panjang dengan warna dasar putih, di tengahnya adalah bintang segi delapan berwarna merah. Bahningsari berasal dari kata bahasa Sansekerta bahning berarti ‘api’ dan sari berarti ‘indah / inti’. Secara filosofis bermakna pasukan yang keberaniannya tidak pernah menyerah seperti semangat inti api yang tidak pernah kunjung padam.
3. PRAJURIT PATANGPULUH (40 Knights)
The name has nothing to do with the amount of knights in this squad. Flag of Patangpulug Knight is Cakragora, rectangle with black basic and in the middle there is red 5 pointed star. Cakragora derives from Sanskrit, cakra means serrated weapon and gora means formidable. Philosophically, this troop has outstanding power.
4. PRAJURIT JAGAKARYA (Jagakarya Knights)
Jagakarya derives from jaga and karya. Jaga means take care and karya derives from Kawi language means duty. Philosophically, Jagakarya means squad to secure government.
Flag of Jagakarya squad is Papasan, a red rectangle and in the middle there is a green circle. Papasan derives from papas means destroying. Philosophically, papasan means brave men that destroy enemies.
5. PRAJURIT PRAWIRATAMA
Prawiratama seric=ves from prawira and tama. Prawira derives from Kawi language means brave or officials or knights, while tama means primary, derives from Sanskrit, in Kawi tama means smart or expert. Philosophically, Prawiratama means brave, smart squad and always wise even in battle.
THe flag of Prawiratama is Geniroga, black rectangular shape with red circle in the center. Geniroga derives from geni means fire and roga means pain. Philosophically, squad that always defeat enemies easily.
6. PRAJURIT NYUTRA
Nyutra derives from sutra or silk. Sutra in Kawi means superior while in new Javanese language means refined fabric. Nyutra Knight are Sri Sultan’s guards. Philosophically, refined troops as silk that always keep Sri Sultan save and having outstanding skill. Nyutra’s weapons are spear, towok, shield, riffle and arrow. Before period of HB IX, Nyutra members should have dancing skills.
Flag of Nyutra is Podhang ngingsepsari and Padma-Sri-Kresna. Podhang ngingsep sari for Red Nyutra Knights, yellow rectangle with red circle in the middle. Padma Sri Kresna is for Black Nyutra Knights, yellow rectangle with black circle in the middle of it.
Podhang ngingsep sari derives from podhang means orioles bird, ngingsep means suck and sari means extract. Philosophically, red nyutra means a troop that always maintain and hold on good deeds. Padma Sri Kresna derives from sanskrit, padma means lotus, sri means light, and beautifula and kresna means black. Philosophically, black nyutra is a troop that always get rid of evil just like Sri Kresna as the manifestation of Wisnu.
7. PRAJURIT KETANGGUNG
Ketanggung derives from Javanese, ‘tanggung’ means burden, philosophically, ketanggung means troops with a heavy burdens. Flag of this squadron is Cakra Swandana, a black rectangle flag with a white hexagon in the middle. Cakra means jagged wheel and swandana means vehicle or carriage. Philodophically, Ketanggung means a troop brings cakra weapon to destroy enemies.
8. PRAJURIT MANTRIJERO
Mantrijero derives from ‘mantri’ and ‘jero’. Mantri is Sanskrit means spokesman, minister. And jero means inside or internal. So literally, Mantrijero means internal spokesman or minister. Philosophically, Mantrijero means troop having authority in decision making inside Kraton.
Flag of Mantrijero troop is Purnamasidhi, a black rectangle flag with white circle in the center. Purnamasidhi derives from Sanskrit , purnama means full moon and sidhi means perfect. Philosophically, Purnamasidhi means troop expected to light the dark.
9. PRAJURIT BUGIS
Bugis derives from Bugis language. Before Hamengkubuwono IX was in duty in Kepatihan as guard of Pepatih Dalem (Prime Minister). Since Hamengkubuwono IX, Bugis troops was united to Keraton military unit and is in charge to guard gunungan in Garebeg ritual. Philosophically, Bugis squad is a powerful troop as the origin of Bugis , Sulawesi. The flag of this squad is Wulan-dadari, black rectangle with golden yellow circle in the middle. Wulan means moon and dadari means bloom. Philosophically, this troop was expected to enlight in the darkness, as fullmoon at night substitute the sun.
10. PRAJURIT SURAKARSA
Surakarsa derives from the words sura and karsa. Sura derives from Sanskrit means brave and karsa means will or desire. Surakarsa knights have duty to guard Pangeran Adipati Anom or Royal Prince, and not part of kraton military units. Philosophically, Surakarsa is a brave troop that is dedicated to keep the safety of royal prince. Since period of Hamengkubuwono IX, the troop is united to kraton unit and in Garebeg ritual, its duty is to guard gunungan. Flag of Surakarsa troop is Pareanom, a green rectangle flag and a yellow circle located in the middle. Pareanom derives from pare (bitter gourd), and anom means young. And philosophically, Pareanom means troop that are always have enthusiastic and spirited.