Candi Jawi, Pasuruan, East Java

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Candi Jawi is located on the foot of Mt Welirang, in Wates Village, Prigen, Pasuruan, just 31 km distance from Pasuruan City. The temple is still intact as few restorations have been done. The temple has been restored for second time is 1938 – 1941, from its collapse condition. As there were many stones gone, the restoration could not be completed, and the completion done in 1975 to 1980.

In Negarakertagama pupuh 56 is written that Candi Jawi was built in appropriate order of last King os Singasari, Kertanegara, for worship site of Siva-Buddhist.  King Kartanegara was a Siva-Buddha follower. The temple is not only a prayer temple but also a funerary temple of King Kertanegara. The later mentioned is a little bit peculiar as the location of Candi Jawi is quiet lengthy from Singasari Kingdom. An estimation about this fact is that the people in this area was a loyal to the King and that they were also Siva-Buddhist that was based by the fact that Raden Wijaya, King Kertanegara’s son in law, fleed to this area and proceed to Madura, when King Kertanegara was  defeated by King Jayakatwang from Kediri.

Candi Jawi is situated in a spacious area of 40 m width and 60 m length, surrounded by 2 m red brick wall. The temple building is circle by a ditch decorated with lotus. Temple size is 24.5 m height, 14.2 m length and 9.5 m width. The entire shape similar to Prambanan Temple in Yogja, that the roof part is a bled of stupa and multilevel cube that pointed on top.

This temple is heading east, and looks like it turned My Penagggungan, that it confirms few experts that this is not a worship temple, for worship temples head to mountain, that is considered as gods reside. Few other experts stick-out this as worship temple and that the temple door position  was influenced by Buddhist.

This temple is regarded as unique as the materials used are white and dark-color stone. Black stone is used on the foot of the temple, white stone on the body of the temple and the roof is made of mix of both types.

Experts weigh that this temple was built on two construction periods. Referring Kertagama, in 1253, Maha Aksobaya was gone that made King Hayam Wuruk grieve. And then this temple also had hit by a lightning, and then restored, that was the time when white stone was utilized. As the area of Mt Welirang only dark stones source exist, possible the white stone was imported from Madura or north coast of Java.

The temple foot is constructed on a foundation of 2 m with reliefs depict about a female ascetic. A stairs is located right in front of door to the garba graha or the temple chamber. An elaborate relief decorating on each sides of the stairs. On the hall, standing statue of animal with long ears.

On the peripheral of the temple, a wide hall way wrap it. The door frame is plain, carved-less, but on top of the door, kala is carved covering the surface between upper door and most bottom roof part with its tusks, lower jaw, and ornament on its hair. On top of the temple niches, carved a creature with tusks and horns.

The inner chamber is empty, and seems it was occupied by a statue. Referring Negarakertagama, the inner of the temple reside statue of Siva with Aksobaya on o the crown. And there were also other statuary in Siva belief namely ;  Mahakala, Durga, Nandiswara, Ganesha, Nandi and Brahma  that usually filling the niches of the temple.  None of those still located in the temple, few are displayed in Mpu Tantular Museum Surabaya.

Wall exterior is emblazoned with reliefs that no experts can barely read this, probably due to thin carving, or other supporting information such as inscription or codex. Even Negarakertagama does not mention about the relief. One of the fragment on the temple wall depicts mapping of the temple and other buildings in the vicinity. There are other buildings close to the temple but now they are already gone, and the gate as showed there now only the remnants or red brick.

Relief also depicted on the inner wall in the middle of the chamber, the highest part of the temple, a relief of god of sun is carved clearly.

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